Research Paper Basics
Taking Notes on Research Reading
- You never have enough time to waste it on useless activity.
- When you are doing this kind of research, you should always have an objective in mind. You are not doing random reading for pleasure; you are aiming at finding material to support the point of your paper.
- Don't get too fancy with colors, highlighting, and other trivia. You probably don't have time to mess with it.
- You are aiming at processing information to synthesize a result—not simply reporting a pile of findings.
Research writing textbooks used to recommend a system of file cards: small 3 x 5 cards for Works Cited information and larger 4 x 6 cards for content—one topic per card. That is great advice because it allows you to shuffle your information and organize it before you start writing. Writing by hand on those 4 x 6 cards also pushes you toward summary or paraphrase notes rather than simply copying out a huge hunk of text verbatim.
Whatever system you use, make it work for you. You do not want information to get lost or forgotten, and you don't want to spend a lot of time on housekeeping or searching for missing material.
Step by Step
- When you first grab a resource, give it a quick look-over to determine how useful it will be. Look at the opening and closing paragraphs, boldface headings, and charts or graphs. Scan it quickly. (A good way is to simply look at the topic sentence of each paragraph.) Then make a decision:
- This is gold. it will be a core item for my paper and I will use a lot of this information.
- Some of this is useful, perhaps a statistic or a quote from an authority, but I'm not going to spend a lot of time here.
- This is useless for the project. Put it back on the shelf or close the computer file.
- Before you do anything else, note down the bibliographic material for your Works Cited (or APA References) page.
- Hint 1: If you are working with a computer, start a word processing document, then open Noodletools and fill in the form. After you have the Noodletools item, copy it and paste it to the word processing file. Don't forget to include the name/author of the source in your notes.
- Hint 2: If the Noodletools option is not available, start your notes with the basic bibliographic information:
- Name of the author(s)—Make sure you get the spelling correct!
- Name of the piece
- If the piece was in a larger "container" publication (newspaper, anthology, website), name of the larger container
- Publisher or organization behind the piece
- Most recent revision date
- If it's a printed item from a newspaper, magazine, or anthology, the page number range of the whole article
- If it's a website, the entire website address (not just the homepage for the organization)
- Now decide what sort of notes to take:
- Quick summary, perhaps of just a small section you will use
- Longer paraphrase of big chunks of the source
- Direct quotation
Direct Quotation—some warnings
The direct quotation should not be your main workhorse in note-taking or in writing the paper. The advantage of summary or paraphrase note-taking, aside from saving space, is that these techniques force you to think about the content rather than simply moving it.
You should always ask yourself why you want to quote the source's exact words. Here are criteria suggested by one textbook* for direct quotation:
- The language is unusually vivid, bold, or inventive.
- The quotation cannot be paraphrased without distortion or loss of meaning.
- The words themselves are at issue in your interpretation.
- The quotation represents and emphasizes the view of an important expert.
- The quotation is a graph, diagram, or table.
When you are quoting:
- Keep track of the page number in the source. (Note: Websites do not have page numbers. Do not make one up.)
- Keep it accurate. Do not introduce your own grammar errors, misspellings, etc.
- Go for the meat. If ten words of the original are the heart of the matter, don't bury them in the middle of a 200-word quotation.
- On the other hand, don't misrepresent your source by leaving out the context. It is unethical to quote a source in such a way as to make the author say something the author never intended. Yes, the Bible does say, "There is no God," but the larger context of Psalm 14 is "Fools say in their hearts, 'There is no God.'"
*Fowler, H. Ramsey, et al. The Little, Brown Handbook. Instructor's ed., HarperCollins, 1995. p. 556-57.
- Give the source a good reading before you start to take notes. Do not be too lazy (or arrogant) to use the dictionary. You want to get a good understanding of what the source says before taking notes on it.
- Finally, it is time to start writing your notes. A question in the back of your mind should always be "How can I use this in my paper?" As you take notes, always keep track of the source, including page numbers. (Yes, even summaries and paraphrases need page number citations; however, web pages do not have page numbers, so do not make them up.)
A Writer's Reference sections R2, MLA-2d, and MLA-3 have more information on note-taking.